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兰道夫·塞弗恩·“特雷”·帕克三世生于1969年10月19日,是一位美国演员、动画师、编剧、作家、制片人、电影导演、以及作曲家[1][2],主要知名于与他的合作伙伴马特·斯通共同创造了《南方公园》(1997年至今)和《摩门经》(2011年)。帕克还是个孩子时就有了对于电影的兴趣,在高中时代这种兴趣拓展到音乐,在入学科罗拉多大学博尔德分校后,他遇到了斯通。两人在许多短片上合作,并创造了长音乐剧《食人族!音乐剧》(1993年)。

帕克和斯通搬到洛杉矶,写了第二部电影《射野之王》(Orgazmo)(1997年)。 在这部电影首映之前,《南方公园》于1997年8月在喜剧中心首映。二人组对该剧拥有完全的创作控制权,并根据该剧制作了音乐和视频游戏。基于该系列的电影《南方公园加长未删减版》(1999年)受到评论家和粉丝的好评。帕克继续他的创作,写作、制作、导演并出演了讽刺动作片《美国:世界警察》(Team America: World Police),经过数年的积累,《摩门经》在百老汇首映并获得好评。2013年,帕克和斯通建立了自己的制作工作室:重要工作室(Important Studios)。

帕克在其职业生涯中曾获得过各种奖项,包括《南方公园》获得的五个黄金时段艾美奖,以及《摩门经》获得的四个托尼奖和一个格莱美奖,以及一次通过与马克·夏曼共同创作的《南方公园加长未删减版》中歌曲“都怪加拿大”获得的奥斯卡金像奖题名。

早年生活

帕克出生于科罗拉多州的科尼弗,是保险业务员莎伦·帕克和地质学家兰道夫·“兰迪”·帕克的儿子。[3]他是一个性格害羞的孩子,因为成绩“尚可”,参加了荣誉课程。他的偶像是巨蟒剧团,他从三年级就开始在电视上观看他们的节目,所以他后来的动画事业受到了特里·吉列姆的巨大影响。[4]帕克六年级时写了一个名为“牙医”的短剧,并在他学校的才艺展示中进行了表演。他扮演牙医,并让他的一个朋友扮演病人。这个短剧的情节包括看牙医时可能出了什么问题,由于剧中出现了大量假血,帕克的父母被叫到学校并对他感到非常不满,帕克后来回忆说:“幼儿园的孩子都被吓哭了。”[5]

帕克将自己描述为“典型的有远大梦想的孩子”,他设想从事电影和音乐事业。从14岁起,他就在周末与一群朋友一起制作短片。他的父亲为他购买了一台摄像机,这使得这个小组能够继续制作电影,直到他们毕业。他在17岁开始对音乐感兴趣,但他只关注喜剧类主题的歌曲。在这段时间里,他与朋友大卫·古德曼一起写了一整张喜剧专辑——《不成熟:80年代男人的情歌集》(Immature: A Collection of Love Ballads For The '80's Man)。在少年时期,帕克对音乐剧产生了浓厚的兴趣,并加入了丹佛郊外久负盛名的山区社区剧团长青剧团(Evergreen Players)。14岁时,他在《春城花满天》(The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas)和《花鼓歌》(Flower Drum Song)中担任合唱团成员,并为社区剧院的《异形奇花》(Little Shop of Horrors)制作设计布景。在高中时,他还为合唱团弹奏钢琴,并担任合唱团的团长。[6][7]由于长青剧团因其合唱团计划而闻名全国,因此担任团长的帕克也成为了一位非常受欢迎的高中生。他通常是学校戏剧的负责人,也是舞会之王。在学校期间,帕克在必胜客兼职,其他人把他描述为一个深度电影迷和音乐迷。[8]

1988年高中毕业后,帕克在伯克利音乐学院度过了一个学期,之后转入科罗拉多大学的博尔德分校。在此期间,他参加了一个电影课,课程要求学生在项目上进行合作。在课程中,他遇到了马特·斯通,他住在附近的小镇利特尔顿,专业是数学,并且两人立即因共同喜欢挑衅性、反威权的幽默和巨蟒剧团而走到了一起。帕克的第一部电影名为《斯里兰卡南部的海狸》(Giant Beavers of Southern Sri Lanka)(1989年),电影中的河狸模仿了哥斯拉式的行走模式。同学杰森·麦克休后来说,这个主意几乎使他一直笑完了整节课。[9][10]帕克和斯通一起写作和表演了许多短片,包括《初恋》(First Date)、《火星上的人》(Man on Mars)和《求职申请》(Job Application)。[11][12]帕克后来评论说,他和斯通几乎每周都会拍摄电影,但绝大部分都没有保存下来。帕克首先在他为大学动画课程制作的短片《美国历史》(American History)(1992年)上使用了剪纸动画技术,结果这种无心插柳的行为使得他获得了他职业生涯的第一个奖项——学生学院奖。帕克回忆自己在颁奖典礼坐在加州动漫学院等动漫学校的学生前的场景说:

And there are all these Cal Arts kids behind me who had submitted these beautiful watercolor and pencil things. And here's my shitty construction-paper thing-which makes South Park look like Disney, by the way, and they're all fuming.(我身后的所有这些来自加州艺术学院的孩子,提交的都是用水彩笔和铅笔画的漂亮画作。而我的则是脏兮兮的剪纸,相比之下《南方公园》简直就像是迪士尼做的一样。顺便一说,那些东西已经全部都烧了。)

事业

《食人族!音乐剧》(1992–1994)

1992年,帕克、斯通、麦克休和伊恩·哈丁创立了一家名为复仇良心(Avenging Conscience)的制作公司,该公司以D·W·格里菲斯同名电影命名,而这部电影四人都非常不喜欢。[13]帕克再次在复仇良心的首部作品《耶稣与霜霜》(Jesus vs. Frosty,1992年)中采用了剪纸画技术,这是一部将宗教人物和《雪人霜霜》(Frosty the Snowman)中的角色结合在一起的动画短片。

The quartet created a three-minute trailer for a fictional film titled Alferd Packer: The Musical. The idea was based on an obsession Parker had with Alfred Packer, a real nineteenth-century prospector accused of cannibalism. During this time, Parker had become engaged to long-time girlfriend Lianne Adamo, but their relationship fell apart shortly before production on the trailer had begun. "Horribly depressed", Parker funneled his frustrations with her into the project, naming Packer's "beloved but disloyal" horse after her.[14] The trailer became somewhat of a sensation among students at the school, leading Virgil Grillo, the chairman and founder of the university's film department, to convince the quartet to expand it to a feature-length film. Parker wrote the film's script, creating an Oklahoma!-style musical featuring ten original show tunes. The group raised $125,000 from family and friends and began shooting the film. The film was shot on Loveland Pass as winter was ending, and the crew endured the freezing weather.[15] Parker—under the pseudonym Juan Schwartz—was the film's star, director and co-producer.

Alferd Packer: The Musical premiered in Boulder in October 1993; "they rented a limousine that circled to ferry every member of the cast and crew from the back side of the block to the red carpet at the theater's entrance." The group submitted the film to the Sundance Film Festival, who did not respond. Parker told McHugh he had a "vision" they needed to be at the festival, which resulted in the group renting out a conference room in a nearby hotel and putting on their own screenings. MTV did a short news segment on The Big Picture regarding the film, and they made industry connections through the festival.[16] They intended to sell video rights to the film for $1 million and spend the remaining $900,000 to create another film. The film was instead sold to Troma Entertainment in 1996 where it was retitled Cannibal! The Musical, and upon the duo's later success, it became their biggest-selling title. It has since been labeled a "cult classic" and adapted into a stage play by community theater groups and even high schools nationwide.

The Spirit of Christmas and Orgazmo (1995–1997)

We were sleeping on floors thinking, Wow, another two weeks and we're going to be fucking rich. And pretty soon two weeks turns into two months, and two months turns into two years, and you definitely stop listening.

Following the film's success, the group, sans Hardin, moved to Los Angeles.Upon arrival, they met a lawyer for the William Morris Agency who connected them with producer Scott Rudin. As a result, the duo acquired a lawyer, an agent, and a script deal. Despite initially believing themselves to be on the verge of success, the duo struggled for several years. Stone slept on dirty laundry for upwards of a year because he could not afford to purchase a mattress. They unsuccessfully pitched a children's program titled Time Warped to Fox Kids, which would have involved fictionalized stories of people in history.[17] The trio created two separate pilots, spaced a year apart, and despite the approval of Fox Broadcasting Company development executive Pam Brady, the network disbanded the Fox Kids division.

David Zucker, who was a fan of Cannibal!, contacted the duo to produce a 15-minute short film for Seagram to show at a party for its acquisition of Universal Studios. Due to a misunderstanding, Parker and Stone improvised much of the film an hour before it was shot, creating it as a spoof of 1950s instructional videos. The result, Your Studio and You, features numerous celebrities, including Sylvester Stallone, Demi Moore, and Steven Spielberg. "You could probably make a feature film out of the experience of making that movie because it was just two dudes from college suddenly directing Steven Spielberg," Parker later remarked, noting that the experience was difficult for the two.[18]

During the time between shooting the pilots for Time Warped, Parker penned the script for a film titled Orgazmo, which later entered production. Half of the budget for the picture came from a Japanese porn company called Kuki, who wanted to feature its performers in mainstream Western media. Independent distributor October Films purchased the rights to the film for one million dollars after its screening at the Toronto International Film Festival. The film received an NC-17 rating from the Motion Picture Association of America, which resulted in the poor box office performance of the film. Parker and Stone attempted to negotiate with the organization on what to delete from the final print, but the MPAA would not give specific notes. The duo later theorized that the organization cared less because it was an independent distributor which would bring it significantly less money.

Parker and Stone also made a short film called The Spirit of Christmas (although it is now usually called Jesus vs. Frosty). Brian Graden (then at Fox) liked this short and asked Parker and Stone to produce a video greeting card (for which he paid with his own money) he could send to friends, this film is now usually known as Jesus vs. Santa. Both Jesus vs. Frosty and Jesus vs. Santa had The Spirit of Christmas as opening credits. Graden sent the film on VHS to several industry executives in Hollywood; meanwhile, someone digitized the short film and put it on Internet, where it became one of the very first viral videos.[19] As Jesus vs. Santa became more popular, Parker and Stone began talks of developing the short into a television series called South Park. They first pitched the show to Fox, but the network refused to pick it up due to not wanting to air a show that included the talking poo character Mr. Hankey. The two were initially skeptical of possible television deals, noting that previous endeavors had not turned out successful, but then entered negotiations with both MTV and Comedy Central. Parker preferred the show be produced by Comedy Central, fearing that MTV would turn it into a kids show.[20] When Comedy Central executive Doug Herzog watched the short, he commissioned for it to be developed into a series.[21]

South Park

Premiere and initial success (1997–1998)

The pilot episode of South Park was made on a budget of $300,000, and took between three and three and a half months to complete, and animation took place in a small room at Celluloid Studios, in Denver, Colorado, during the summer of 1996. Similarly to Parker and Stone's Christmas shorts, the original pilot was animated entirely with traditional cut paper stop-motion animation techniques. The idea for the town of South Park came from the real Colorado basin of the same name where, according to the creators, a lot of folklore and news reports originated about "UFO sightings, and cattle mutilations, and Bigfoot sightings."

At the time, Comedy Central had a low distribution of just 21 million subscribers.[22] The company marketed the show aggressively before its launch, billing it as "why they created the V-chip."[23] The resulting buzz led to the network earning an estimated $30 million in T-shirts sales alone before the first episode was even aired. South Park premiered in August 1997 and immediately became one of the most popular shows on cable television, averaging consistently between 3.5 and 5.5 million viewers.The show transformed the fledgling network into "a cable industry power almost overnight." Due to the success of the series' first six episodes, Comedy Central requested an additional seven; the series completed its first season in February 1998. An affiliate of the MTV Network until then, Comedy Central decided, in part due to the success of South Park, to have its own independent sales department.[24] By the end of 1998, Comedy Central had sold more than $150 million worth of merchandise for the show, including T-shirts and dolls. Over the next few years, Comedy Central's viewership spiked largely due to South Park, adding 3 million new subscribers in the first half of 1998 alone, and allowed the network to sign international deals with networks in several countries.

Parker and Stone became celebrities as a result of the program's success; Parker noted that the success of South Park allowed him to pursue, for a time, a lifestyle that involved partying with women and "out-of-control binges" in Las Vegas. Their philosophy of taking every deal (which had surfaced as a result of their lack of trust in the early success of South Park) led to their appearances in films, albums, and outside script deals. Among these included BASEketball, a 1998 comedy film that became a critical and commercial flop, and rights to produce a prequel to Dumb and Dumber, which was never completed.

Bigger, Longer & Uncut and continued success

Parker and Stone signed a deal with Comedy Central in April 1998 that contracted the duo to producing South Park episodes until 1999, gave them a slice of the lucrative spinoff merchandising the show generated within its first year, as well as an unspecified seven-figure cash bonus to bring the show to the big screen, in theaters.[25] During the time, the team was also busy writing the second and third seasons of the series, the former of which Parker and Stone later described as "disastrous". As such, they figured the phenomenon would be over soon, and they decided to write a personal, fully committed musical.[26] Parker and Stone fought with the MPAA to keep the film R-rated; for months the ratings board insisted on the more prohibitive NC-17.[27] The film was only certified an R rating two weeks prior to its release, following contentious conversations between Parker/Stone, Rudin, and Paramount Pictures.[28] Parker felt very overwhelmed and overworked during the production process of the film, especially between April and the film's opening in late June. He admitted that press coverage, which proclaimed the end of South Park was near, bothered him. South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut opened in cinemas in June 1999 and received critical acclaim while grossing $83 million at the box office.[29]

Parker and Stone continue to write, direct, and voice most characters on South Park. Over time, the show has adopted a unique production process, in which an entire episode is written, animated and broadcast in one week.[30] Parker and Stone state that subjecting themselves to a one-week deadline creates more spontaneity amongst themselves in the creative process, which they feel results in a funnier show. Although initial reviews for the show were negative in reference to its crass humor, the series has received numerous accolades, including five Primetime Emmy Awards, a Peabody Award, and numerous inclusions in various publications' lists of greatest television shows. Though its viewership is lower than it was at the height of its popularity in its earliest seasons, South Park remains one of the highest-rated series on Comedy Central.[31] In 2012, South Park cut back from producing 14 episodes per year (seven in the spring and seven in the fall) to a single run of 10 episodes in the fall, to allow the duo to explore other projects the rest of the year.[32] As of 2019 the show is renewed through 2022, when it will reach its twenty-sixth season.[33] The show's twenty-third season premiered on September 25, 2019.[34]

South Park has continued, becoming an enterprise worth hundreds of millions of dollars. The franchise has also expanded to music and video games. Comedy Central released various albums, including Chef Aid: The South Park Album and Mr. Hankey's Christmas Classics, in the late 1990s.[35][36][37] The song "Chocolate Salty Balls" (as sung by the character Chef) was released as a single in the UK in 1998 to support the Chef Aid: The South Park Album and became a number one hit.[38] Parker and Stone had little to do with the development of video games based on the series that were released at this time,[39][40] but took full creative control of South Park: The Stick of Truth, a 2014 video game based on the series that received positive reviews and for which they shared (with Eric Fenstermaker) the 2014 Writing In A Comedy and Parker won the Performance in a Comedy, Supporting award by National Academy of Video Game Trade Reviewers (NAVGTR).[41][42][43] Broadcast syndication rights to South Park were sold in 2003,[44][45] and all episodes are available for free full-length on-demand legal streaming on the official South Park Studios website.[46] In 2007, the duo, with the help of their lawyer, Kevin Morris, cut a 50-50 joint venture with Comedy Central on all revenue not related to television; this includes digital rights to South Park, as well as films, soundtracks, T-shirts and other merchandise, in a deal worth $75 million.

Television and film projects

That's My Bush! (2000–2001)

In 2000, Parker and Stone began plotting a television sitcom starring the winner of the 2000 presidential election. The duo were "95 percent sure" that Democratic candidate Al Gore would win, and tentatively titled the show Everybody Loves Al. Parker said the producers did not want to make fun of politics:

They threw a party the night of the election with the writers, with intentions to begin writing the following Monday and shooting the show in January 2001 with the inauguration. With the confusion of who the President would be, the show's production was pushed back. The show was filmed at Sony Pictures Studios, and was the first time Parker and Stone shot a show on a production lot.

Although That's My Bush!, which ran between April and May 2001, received a fair amount of publicity and critical notice, according to Stone and Parker, the cost per episode was too high, "about $1 million an episode."[47] Comedy Central officially cancelled the series in August 2001 as a cost-cutting move; Stone was quoted as saying "A super-expensive show on a small cable network...the economics of it were just not going to work."[48] Comedy Central continued the show in reruns, considering it a creative and critical success. Parker believed the show would not have survived after the September 11 attacks anyway, and Stone agreed, saying the show would not "play well". During this time, the duo also signed a deal with Macromedia Shockwave to produce 39 animated online shorts in which they would retain full artistic control; the result, Princess, was rejected after only two episodes.[49][50]

Team America (2002–2004)

In 2002, the duo began working on Team America: World Police, a satire of big-budget action films and their associated clichés and stereotypes, with particular humorous emphasis on the global implications of the politics of the United States.[51] Starring puppets, Team America was produced using a crew of about 200 people, which sometimes required four people at a time to manipulate a marionette.[52] Although the filmmakers hired three dozen highly skilled marionette operators, execution of some very simple acts by the marionettes proved to be very difficult, with a simple shot such as a character drinking taking a half-day to complete successfully. The deadline for the film's completion took a toll on both filmmakers, as did various difficulties in working with puppets, with Stone, who described the film as "the worst time of [my] life", resorting to coffee to work 20-hour days and sleeping pills to go to bed.[53][54] The film was barely completed in time for its October release date,[55] but reviews were positive and the film made a modest sum at the box office.[56]

Broadway and film studio

The Book of Mormon

Parker and Stone, alongside writer-composer Robert Lopez, began working on a musical centering on Mormonism during the production of Team America. Lopez, a fan of South Park and creator of the puppet musical Avenue Q, met with the duo after a performance of the musical, where they conceived the idea.[57] The musical, titled The Book of Mormon: The Musical of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was worked on over a period of several years; working around their South Park schedule, they flew between New York City and Los Angeles often, first writing songs for the musical in 2006. Developmental workshops began in 2008,[58] and the crew embarked on the first of a half-dozen workshops that would take place during the next four years. Originally, producer Scott Rudin planned to stage The Book of Mormon off-Broadway at the New York Theatre Workshop in summer 2010, but opted to premiere it directly on Broadway, "[s]ince the guys [Parker and Stone] work best when the stakes are highest."[59]

After a frantic series of rewrites, rehearsals, and previews,The Book of Mormon premiered on Broadway at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre on March 24, 2011.[60][61] The Book of Mormon received broad critical praise for the plot, score, actors' performances, direction and choreography.[62] A cast recording of the original Broadway production became the highest-charting Broadway cast album in over four decades.[63] The musical received nine Tony Awards, one for Best Musical, and a Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album. The production has since expanded to two national tours, a Chicago production, UK production, and as of 2014 Parker and Stone had confirmed that a film adaption was in pre-production.

Important Studios and future projects

With sufficient funds from their work on South Park and The Book of Mormon, the duo announced plans to create their own production studio, Important Studios, in January 2013. The studio will approve projects ranging from films to television to theatre.[64]

On April 13, 2016, Universal Pictures announced that Trey Parker would be voicing the villain Balthazar Bratt in Despicable Me 3. The film, released in June 2017, was Parker's first voice role not scripted by either himself or Matt Stone.[65]

Personal life

Parker married Emma Sugiyama in 2006. The officiant was 1970s sitcom producer Norman Lear.[66][67] The marriage ended through divorce in 2008.[68][69][70] Parker subsequently began a relationship with Boogie Tillmon, whom he later married in 2014. The marriage gained Parker a stepson.[71] Their daughter, Betty Boogie Parker, was born in 2013.[72][73][74] The couple divorced in 2019, citing irreconcilable differences.[75]

Parker resides in Los Angeles, California.[76] He owns properties in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, Kauai, Hawaii; Seattle, Washington; and Midtown Manhattan in New York City.[77][78][79]

In a September 2006 edition of the ABC News program Nightline, Parker expressed his views on religion, stating that he believes in "a God" and that "there is knowledge that humanity does not yet possess" while cautioning that it would take a long time to explain exactly what he meant by his belief in God. Parker believes all religions are "silly". He states that "All the religions are superfunny to me... The story of Jesus makes no sense to me. God sent his only son. Why could God only have one son and why would he have to die? It's just bad writing, really. And it's really terrible in about the second act." Parker further remarked,

Basically... out of all the ridiculous religion stories which are greatly, wonderfully ridiculous—the silliest one I've ever heard is, 'Yeah... there's this big giant universe and it's expanding, it's all gonna collapse on itself and we're all just here just 'cause... just ' cause'. That, to me, is the most ridiculous explanation ever.[80]

Politically, Parker describes himself as libertarian, as does his partner Matt Stone.[81] In 2004, Parker summed up his views with the comment:

What we're sick of—and it's getting even worse—is: you either like Michael Moore or you wanna fuckin' go overseas and shoot Iraqis. There can't be a middle ground. Basically, if you think Michael Moore's full of shit, then you are a super-Christian right-wing whatever. And we're both just pretty middle-ground guys. We find just as many things to rip on on the left as we do on the right. People on the far left and the far right are the same exact person to us.[82]

配音角色

特雷·帕克和马特·斯通配音了《南方公园》中的大部分角色,下表是一些主要角色:

作品一览

TreyParker

Trey Parker in 2005.

  • The Giant Beaver of Southern Sri Lanka (1989): Director, writer.
  • First Date (1990): Director, writer.
  • American History (1992): Director, writer.
  • Jesus vs. Frosty (1992): Director, writer, voice actor, producer, character designer.
  • Cannibal! The Musical (1993): Director, writer, actor, producer, composer, dialogue editor, foley artist, post-production sound, sound designer, sound effects, songs. Credited as Juan Schwartz.
  • Time Warped (Un-aired television series, 1995): Director, writer, actor, voice actor, producer, creator. Credited as Juan schwartz.
  • Jesus vs. Santa (1995): Director, writer, voice actor, producer, character designer. Uncredited.
  • Your Studio and You (1995): Director, writer, actor.
  • For Goodness Sake II (1996): Director, actor.
  • Orgazmo (1997): Director, actor, writer, producer, editor. credited as Juan Schwartz.
  • South Park (Television series, 1997-present): Co-creator, voice actor, writer, director, executive producer, music.
  • BASEketball (1998): Actor.
  • Revenge of the Roadkill Rabbit (Short film, 1999): Actor, voice actor. Credited as Juan Schwartz.
  • South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut (1999): Director, voice actor, writer, producer, music co-composer.
  • Terror Firmer (1999): Actor.
  • Even If You Don't (2000): Director.
  • Princess (2001): Director, writer, voice actor, producer.
  • That's My Bush! (Television series, 2001): Co-creator, writer, executive producer, music.
  • Team America: World Police (2004): Director, writer, voice actor, producer, music.
  • Tales from the Crapper (2004): Actor
  • The Aristocrats (2005): Guest appearance.
  • Kenny vs. Spenny (2007): Executive producer.
  • Saul of the Mole Men (2007): Voice actor
  • The Book of Mormon (Broadway musical theater, 2011): Producer, writer, director, music.
  • Despicable Me 3 (2017): Balthazar Bratt, Main Antagonist.

参考列表

  1. "Trey Parker: Biography". Retrieved on February 27, 2019.
  2. "Trey Parker". Biography.com. Retrieved on March 6, 2019.
  3. "Trey Parker biography". Biography.com. Retrieved on April 26, 2014.
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved on 2011-06-15.
  5. Devin Leonard (October 27, 2006). "South Park creators haven't lost their edge". CNN. Retrieved on June 17, 2011.
  6. "Frank Rich's Liner Notes for The Book of Mormon" (May 20, 2011). Archived from the original on June 25, 2011.
  7. Moore, John (June 12, 2011). "The Book of Mormon: Colorado's kings of pop-culture subversion".
  8. Paul Harris (April 1, 2007). "Undisputed kings of cartoon satire". Retrieved on June 17, 2011.
  9. Johnny Davis (April 3, 2009). "Smalltown heroes". Retrieved on July 1, 2014.
  10. McHugh, Jason (2011). Shpadoinkle: The Making of Cannibal! The Musical. Certified Renegade American Publishing.
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